The Importance of Training Fundamentals of T-1/T-3
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Course Description

A Comprehensive Overview of T-1/T-3 Networks, Technologies, and Services
  • As with all Data Dynamics offerings, this class can be tailored to meet specific needs.
Fundamentals of T-1/T-3 will show you how to use T-1/T-3 capabilities and services to meet your network demands and take full advantage of the latest telecommunications technologies. In two fast-paced, interactive days, you will master the industry buzzwords, evaluate vendor services and equipment, and learn how to use T-1/T-3 performance to full advantage when building high-speed networks. Higher speed networks are the order of the day for voice, high-speed data and snappy Web performance. The T-carrier system is the very bedrock of high-speed networking in the telephone company hierarchy of services.

In-class Demonstrations

Class demonstrations are designed to solidify concepts presented in class by showing how they are implemented in practice. Accordingly, demonstrations are woven throughout the presentation.  The emphasis is on showing the physical form these concepts take in real-world equipment. If you would like us to use your equipment instead of our own, we will be pleased to do so.

· Examine a DSU/CSU to find out how its connectors are used
· Step through the lights and switches to see what they mean, what they do and how to use them
· Discuss several ways that DSU/CSUs can be configured
· Walk through the setup sequence with attention to signal levels, clocking, frame, format, line coding, keep-alive, alarm indication options and DTE interface parameters
· Exercise test functions such as loopbacks and QRSS testing
· Observe failure indications due to misconfiguration, miscabling or both

Students are encouraged to bring their own equipment and/or manuals to class in order to see how their documentation and equipment relates to the principles presented in class. Students are welcome to experiment with the class equipment during breaks, lunch or after class.

Seminar Outline

1.  An Overview of the T-carrier system

We'll explore the development of the T-carrier hierarchy and its value to users and carriers.  Examine the basic components of a T1 digital transmission system, and discover the potential benefits and risks associated with this durable technology.

A.  The T-carrier hierarchy
B.  What a T-1 is
C.  How T-1s are channelized
D.  Channel banks versus bandwidth managers
E.  Essentials of a T-3
F.  T-carriers and SONET
G.  Advantages and Drawbacks of T-carrier systems

2.  Understanding T-1 Technology

In this unit we categorize the components of a T-1 carrier system. We note the shape of the DS-1 signal and what it can do. We use a unique method of explanation to help students absorb difficult concepts such as onesā density, D4 and Extended Superframe. The ways in which a T-1 can be channelized or fractionalized are discussed using the same technique. Finally, we explain how robbed-bit signaling provides the control necessary for telephone use.
A.  Analog versus digital signals: pros and cons
B.  Why go digital?
C.  Where T-carriers fit in the North American Switching Hierarchy
1. Subscriber Loop Carrier systems
D.  Components of a T-carrier system
E.  Pulse Code Modulation, frame rates and aliasing
F.  Maintaining onesā density: AMI versus B8ZS
G.  DS-1 frame formats: D4 and ESF (54016 and T1.403)
    1.  Facility Data Links
    2.  CRC-6 Error Detection
H. E-carriers and how they are organized (optional)
I.   How T-1s are channelized and fractionalized

3. The T-3 Protocols

T-3ās 44.736 Mbps speed is a natural evolutionary step from the T-1 rate. Since many DS-1s are multiplexed up to the DS-3 level at telephone company central offices, understanding the DS-3 level of the hierarchy is useful whether or not you plan to use it directly.

A.  Components of a T-3 carrier system
B.  Onesā density at the DS-3 level: B3ZS
C.  The basic M-frame
D.  C-bit and SYNTRAN
E.  Bit-stuffing: pros and cons
F.  M13 and M28 multiplexing: why one is better than the other

4. Timing and Signaling

In this unit we explain how T-carrier systems are timed, who supplies the timing, who must take it and how to minimize timing problems. While timing and synchronization are closely related, they are not the same thing, and this unit explains the differences between them. Clock quality within the telephone company can vary, so we will explain the different levels of clock quality and what you need to know in order to maintain a stable system.
A. Timing and synchronization: not the same!
B.  The Four Kinds of Timing
C.  Stratum levels
D.  Slips and how to minimize them
E.  How to evaluate carrier clocking schemes
F.  Subscriber loop and interoffice (CCIS/SS7) signaling
    1. In-band and out-of-band
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